Spinal muscles are one of the most important muscle groups. Thanks to them, a person is able to walk, sit, maintain balance, keep upright. Spinal muscles are one of the components of the movement mechanism. Strengthened and strong muscles allow you to lift large loads without spinal injuries.
Weak or disproportionately developed ones lead to a decrease in endurance, a deterioration in overall well-being, a change in the position of the vertebrae, and a decrease in the quality of motor processes. To maintain health and avoid diseases such as scoliosis or stoop, you need to purposefully and properly strengthen the muscles. To build the most effective training complex you need to know the anatomy and functionality of each muscle.
Back: anatomy and function
The following subgroups of spinal muscles are distinguished:
- deep muscle corset;
- superficial muscles.
The internal muscles play the role of a binding material for all vertebral segments, thereby providing physiological curves of the human spine. The presence of adequately expressed lordoses and kyphoses allows an upright person to evenly redistribute the load and avoid mechanical injuries.
The surface layer of the back muscles is actively involved in movements, movements of the torso, arms and pelvis. Also, its presence provides functional and mechanical protection of internal organs, bones and ligaments.
It is the condition of the back muscles, that is, the balance or imbalance in their development, that determines our posture, flexibility and mobility.
The general condition of the body depends on the condition of the back muscles.
From the point of view of anatomy, spinal muscles are divided into 5 groups:
Based on the location, the muscles are classified into:
- Superficial – those that are attached on one side to the spinous processes of the vertebrae, and on the other to the area of the ribs, scapula, pelvis or shoulder girdle.
- Deep – short, paired and transverse, they connect the vertebrae. Fibers are especially durable.
Superficial back muscles
This group of human muscles is represented by two sublayers: the upper one consists of large muscles, the lower one consists of smaller ones.
The trapezium and latissimus dorsi belong to the first layer. The muscles of the other layer are represented by rhomboid fibrous planes. They connect the upper vertebrae with the shoulder blades. Below, in the second layer, there are not very large muscles.
The latissimus dorsi, its upper section, is located under the trapezium, and the rest continues to the lower back. These muscles work most in the process of raising the arm or abduction.
The trapezium is one of the widest muscles. It is a flat muscle, the main task of which is the movement of the shoulder blades. They are triangular in shape, and together the muscles are similar to an inverted trapezoid, which is why they are named.
It works when a person shrugs, throws back his head or works with his upper shoulder girdle.
Diamond-shaped: large and small
The large rhomboid muscle is attached to the 4 thoracic segments of the thoracic region and to the inner scapular corner.
The small rhomboid muscle from above is attached to two cervical vertebrae and an outcrop ligament. It ends in the same place as the big one. Since the work of both of these muscles is aimed at shifting the shoulder blades to the side and inward, in many respects they determine the posture of a person.
Toothed: upper and lower
The posterior dentate muscles make up the muscle group and are divided into the upper ones (take an active part in the process of inspiration, raising the ribs) and the lower ones (take part in the process of exhaling, lowering the ribs).
This muscle group has a fine structure, however, it is innervated by the intercostal nerves. It is their pathological condition that leads to intercostal neuralgia.
The deep back muscles are a kind of framework, thanks to which the spine is in the correct physiological position. They form a muscle corset that protects and holds the vertebrae, and also participates in their trophy. Thanks to this muscle group, the movement of the head and body occurs.
The group of the main deep muscles of the back is represented by:
- belt muscle of the neck;
- transverse spinous muscle;
- sacrospinous muscle;
- muscle bundle group.
The base of this muscle is the appendix of the 7th cervical vertebra and the top of the 3rd and 4th thoracic vertebrae. It is attached to the transverse processes of the first 3 vertebrae of the cervical spine.
The right part turns the head to the right side, and the left – to the left. Head movement is carried out by the work of both halves.
The anatomy of this muscle determines the harmony and flexibility of the human body. The muscle is formed from short diagonal fibers and connects the vertebrae by filling the space between the spinous processes.
The semi-axial part of the transverse-spinous muscle forms an inner corset around the entire vertebra. Thus, a cushioning effect is carried out.
Multifidus is represented by interspinous bundles of a vertical direction and inter-transverse joints.
Rotating bundles of muscle fibers of different sizes form oblique extensions between adjacent segments or through one.
Together, these muscle formations carry out extension of the spine, and the work of one side leads to the twisting of the torso in the opposite direction.
The sacrospinous muscle of the back is one of the strongest in the human body. It is her work that allows us to turn the body or head, bend and straighten.
Longitudinal muscles of the back
They are located on both sides of the vertebral segments throughout the entire spinal column.
The muscle that extends the spine is divided into three parts:
- Iliac-rib muscle. It departs from the iliac crest, and along the lateral edge of the trunk continues to the transverse cervical processes of the last vertebrae of the neck. Depending on the location zone, the ileo-rib muscle of the neck and the iliopsoas muscle are isolated.
- Long back muscle.
- Spinous muscle.
What you need to do to strengthen your back muscles
A beautiful back has aesthetic and physiological significance. A beautiful female waist and a man’s inflated back always attract looks, so a huge number of people rush to the rocking chair.
However, you need to understand that before you begin strength training, you must pass an examination.
A number of factors can affect the quality and content of classes.
Contraindications to strength exercises are:
- spinal hernia;
- oncological neoplasms;
- acute condition such as neuralgia, myalgia, etc.
But this does not mean that you will never have a beautiful back. In this case, before you begin active exercises to swing the back muscles, you need to undergo a course of physiotherapy exercises.
A set of exercises for the back muscles
Exercise therapy for the back is aimed at stretching the spinal column, increasing the amplitude of movement and flexibility, improving the power qualities of the back muscles, achieving harmonious and balanced development of the spinal muscles.
There are certain differences in exercise therapy from a regular workout:
- Slow pace. All exercises are performed at a slow pace so as not to injure the body due to sudden movements.
- Duration Do not expect results in two sessions. Back problems occur not in one month, but sometimes for years. To eliminate the defect or at least minimize its manifestation, you need a long rehabilitation period.
- Regularity. The highest quality and long-term results can be achieved only by constant training. Sometimes such a complex needs to be repeated several times a day.
- Sequence. No need to start immediately with a heavy load. The number of repetitions and the quality of the workout should change gradually.
Spinal decompression exercises:
- Different variations of hanging on the crossbar or the Swedish wall.
- Sipping while lying down. Options are face up or down.
- Sipping with focus on the elbows.
Exercises to increase the amplitude of the back:
- torso forward from a standing position;
- body rotation;
- successive breeding of hips from a standing position;
- alternately pulling the hips from a standing position;
- alternate swings with legs resting on a chair;
- alternating and paired pulling the knees to the chest in the supine position.
Exercise to increase the strength of the muscles of the back:
From a supine position:
- With arms spread out to the side, at the same time raise your head due to the tension of the neck and pull the socks on yourself. Fix the body in this position for 15 seconds.
- Place a cushion or twisted cloth under the lower back. Bend with your hands behind your head and remain in this position for several seconds.
From a supine position:
- Bend, lifting hands and feet off the ground. It is necessary to fix the body in this position for a few seconds.
- Deflection in the shoulder girdle due to elbows. It is important that the rest of the body does not come off the ground.
Deflection of the body from a standing position on all fours.
A set of exercises for strength training of back muscles
Often, for the sake of an aesthetic result, people work only on the muscles that are visible. However, only a balanced load on all muscle groups of the back will help maintain health, provide athletic longevity, bring overall well-being, reduce injuries when performing various exercises, and improve posture and gait.
It is necessary to observe some rules when building a training and completing tasks:
- Know the structure and functions of each group of spinal muscles;
- do exercises consciously;
- feel the muscles you are working with;
- add load gradually.
Exercises for pumping the latissimus muscles:
- pull-ups with different arrangement of fingers;
- work with dumbbells.
Rocking chair for trapezius muscle:
- the top of the trapezoid is pumped with shrugs (with a bar);
- middle – traction in the slope;
- bottom – lifting weights above the head.
Classes on the work of the extensor back:
- slopes with a barbell on the shoulders;
- deadlift (classic, sumo, with weights);
- backward level;
- work with dumbbells;
- mixed traction.
Work with the big round muscle of the back:
- alternating vertical pull on hands from a standing position;
- work with a T-bar;
- cravings for the chest.
Knowing the anatomical structure of the back and having an idea of the physiology of movement of each of them, you can rationally distribute the exercises to all muscle groups.
Thus, instead of a short-term visual effect, get a healthy and beautiful back.
The matter is left to the small. Do not be lazy!